domingo, 17 de junho de 2018

Foreign doctors in USA

Trump's Immigration Policies Are Making It Harder for Foreign Doctors to Work in the U.S. — And That Could Hurt Patients

It's only the latest threat to foreign medical graduates

For the past four years, Daniel, an Israeli-born doctor completing a medical residency in the U.S., has secured an H-1B visa for temporary specialized workers without a hitch. But this May, without warning, the government put his status in the U.S. in danger.

Daniel, who withheld his last name for fear of retaliation, is one of many foreign-born medical residents across the country who have received visa rejections or delays since mid-April — similar to rejections thousands of H-1B applicants in other high-paying industries have recently received — prompting a flurry of legal activity from medical groups, hospital systems and individual doctors.

His situation is only the latest threat to international medical graduates. Several immigration policy changes under the Trump administration have left them deterred from or unable to practice medicine in the U.S. — which could be disastrous for a health care system already in the midst of a growing physician shortage. The changes could particularly affect patient care in community and underserved urban hospitals.

“I don’t want to sound paranoid, but I just think the current administration is trying to intimidate foreign workers and trying to intimidate hospital systems,” Daniel says. “For somebody who’s lived in the country for four years, that’s definitely not something I was expecting.” (A White House spokesperson referred TIME to United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) and did not offer a separate comment.)

In Daniel’s case, after presenting USCIS with the same Association of American Medical Colleges resident stipend estimates that he’s used in his application for the last four years, USCIS responded with a request for evidence (RFE) seeking more specific, localized data — data that he says does not exist for resident physicians. Unless he can come up with it or mount a convincing enough legal argument before his visa expires on June 30 — the day before many medical residency programs begin across the country — Daniel will have to go back to Israel almost immediately, leaving his training unfinished and his hospital short a doctor.

The visa situation threatens the status of thousands of training physicians nationwide — roughly 25% of foreign medical residents in the U.S. rely on H-1B visas — and prompted a number of medical organizations to send a joint letter to the USCIS on May 30 expressing concern about the change. USCIS spokesman Michael Bars told TIME that any requests for evidence are in line with existing laws and standards.

“USCIS recognizes the use of valid private wage surveys by petitioners to establish the prevailing wage for an H-1B petition,” Bars said in a statement. “However, USCIS will continue to issue RFEs or denials, if appropriate, when officers determine that the petitioner has not established eligibility for the benefit sought. In keeping with the law as directed by the President’s Buy America, Hire America Executive Order as well as the intention of Congress, ensuring that H-1B employers are complying with all eligibility requirements serves to safeguard the integrity of the program to protect the wages, working conditions, and jobs of U.S. workers.”

In a second statement, Bars added that, “USCIS continues to review issues pertaining to private wage surveys and will consider issuing additional guidance to our officers in the future, if needed. If a petitioner has questions or concerns about its case, it may send an inquiry to USCIS through appropriate customer service channels.”

While the exact number of foreign doctors affected by policy changes isn’t known, signs of the trend have appeared in a few ways. Fewer non-U.S.-citizen international medical graduates registered for the residency match this year than in any since 2005, according to the 2018 Main Residency Match report. The number who became active applicants (7,067) was the lowest since 2012, the report adds. In 2016, for example, that number was closer to 7,500.

The downturn seems especially pronounced among residents of countries included in President Donald Trump’s original 2017 travel ban. (A revised travel ban looks likely to be upheld by the Supreme Court.) By recent estimates, about 8,000 doctors practicing in the U.S. were trained in countries included in the original ban.

Eighteen percent fewer doctors from countries included in Trump’s executive order came through the group that helps international medical graduates get certifications necessary to practice in the U.S., the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG), in 2017, according to the group’s president, Dr. William Pinsky. There’s also been an overall drop in the number of people applying for ECFMG certification over the past two years, he says.

“I’m hoping that the trend, or almost trend, that we’re seeing is because people are just waiting to see what’s going to happen,” Pinsky says. “But the fact is, there are opportunities for training around the world other than the United States.”

That’s something Sanaz Attaripour-Isfahani knows well. An international medical graduate trained in Iran and currently completing a fellowship in the U.S., Attaripour-Isfahani says she doesn’t regret the five-year logistical battle and multiple visa application denials it took to get here for residency. But she’s already seen that not everyone feels that way: Her sister, a doctor in Iran, decided to pursue residency in Canada, because the obstacles to getting into the U.S. are too great.

“I am very proud of what I gained here. [But] she does not think it’s worth it,” Attaripour-Isfahani says. “In the future, definitely, we will have a lot less Iranian doctors, comparing with what we had over the last 10 years.”

International medical graduates may increasingly gravitate toward programs in Europe, the U.K. and Canada if political trends continue, says Dr. Yusuke Tsugawa, a Japanese-trained doctor who has studied international medical graduates and is now an assistant professor of medicine at the University of California Los Angeles’ David Geffen School of Medicine. “In addition to the actual changes that have been made in the last one or two years, I think there’s some concerns about uncertainty around what’s going to happen in the future,” Tsugawa says. “They don’t want to come to the U.S. to start their training and get kicked out during the training, because that would be devastating for their careers.”

That uncertainty could have repercussions for patients, since foreign-born physicians occupy a pivotal place in the U.S. health care system. About an eighth of the resident workforce was born in a foreign country. With the American College of Physicians already projecting a shortage of between 40,800 and 105,000 doctors by 2030, any drop in the number of physicians who choose to practice in the U.S. could have significant effects.

Underserved areas may be the hardest hit. Studies have shown that international medical graduates are more likely to practice in inner cities and rural communities, and to enter essential practice areas such as primary care and family medicine — two fields U.S. grads are increasingly eschewing in favor of high-paying specialties like surgery and dermatology. Because of that trend, “Just training more doctors in the current system in the United States will overcompensate for specialists, and under-compensate for primary care docs,” says Dr. G. Richard Olds, president of St. George’s University in Grenada, a leading provider of foreign-trained U.S. doctors. International medical graduates “play a very important role, because we have had an insufficient number of U.S.-trained doctors for some time.”

There’s also evidence that international medical graduates provide care that is just as good, if not better, than that of domestically schooled doctors. A 2017 study by Tsugawa found that patients treated by international medical graduates had slightly lower 30-day mortality rates than people at the same hospital who were treated by U.S.-trained physicians. The two groups also had similar rates of hospital readmission, a metric often used to quantify quality of care. These results underscore the talent of international medical graduates, Tsugawa says.

“I don’t think the quality of the U.S. medical schools are worse than the quality of that in foreign countries,” Tsugawa says. “I think what explains it better is that the selection criteria for foreign medical graduates in the U.S. is pretty rigorous.” The residency match rate for Americans this year was 94%, meaning the vast majority of American students on track to graduate from U.S. medical schools were accepted to a training program. Only 56% of non-U.S.-citizen international medical graduates, by contrast, matched with a residency program this year.

Dr. Anupam Jena, a professor of health care policy at Harvard Medical School, agrees that the quality of international medical graduate care tends to be high. “We’re attracting the best and the brightest from all over the world,” he says. “Not surprisingly, the best and the brightest from India or China or Russia or wherever are probably going to be pretty good.”

Still, it can be difficult and costly to secure visas for foreign clinicians. That’s especially daunting for small, community-hospital-based residency programs — the type that tend to produce critically needed primary care physicians and doctors who end up practicing in underserved areas. “If you have a program with 15 first-year residents and one or two don’t show up, it could be devastating for the program,” ECFMG’s Pinsky says. As a result, small hospitals may simply not take the risk, leaving international medical graduates who don’t make the cut for the most selective programs in the lurch.

Some schools that did take the risk may be punished this year, given the current situation with H-1B visas. The letter sent to the USCIS by various medical groups notes that, for “at least one internal medicine training program,” 60% of incoming residents are on, or are supposed to be on, H-1B visas.

“I don’t even want to know what’s going to happen if [programs like that] have to start without having any of those people working,” Daniel, the medical resident, says. “That is really going to affect patient care.”

quinta-feira, 31 de maio de 2018

Ensino superior

Livro investiga os três modelos mais influentes de educação superior

José Tadeu Arantes

 Alemanha, França e Estados Unidos criaram sistemas educacionais que foram copiados por outros países, inclusive o Brasil. Neste estudo, os três modelos são esmiuçados (foto:Anfiteatro Turgot/Sorbonne)

Três modelos de educação superior repercutiram globalmente, influenciando as iniciativas educacionais de diferentes países: o alemão, o francês e o norte-americano. No Brasil, por exemplo, as diretrizes que estruturaram o ensino superior foram, de início, fortemente calcadas na norma francesa – determinante na criação da Universidade de São Paulo, em 1934. Sofreram, depois, pesada influência norte-americana, na reforma educacional promovida pela ditadura civil-militar, em 1969. Um livro, há pouco publicado, investiga os três modelos internacionais de educação superior referidos. Seu título expressa de forma muito simples e direta o conteúdo: Modelos internacionais de educação superior: Estados Unidos, França e Alemanha.

Coordenado por Reginaldo Carmello Corrêa de Moraes, professor titular da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), o livro constitui um subproduto do projeto “Ensino superior, políticas de pesquisa e inovação, processos de desenvolvimento - estudo comparado de quatro países: Alemanha, Brasil, França e Estados Unidos”, conduzido por Moraes e apoiado pela FAPESP. E também recebeu apoio da FAPESP para publicação. Além de Moraes, participaram da redação as pesquisadoras Maitá de Paula e Silva e Luiza Carnicero de Castro.

“Os três modelos foram escolhidos por nós porque, de certo modo, forneceram padrões que se disseminaram pelo mundo”, disse Moraes à Agência FAPESP. “O modelo alemão, o mais antigo do período contemporâneo, criado por Humboldt na primeira metade do século XIX, estabeleceu um sistema que combina ensino e pesquisa. Tornou-se tão influente que a Alemanha se transformou no polo de atração para os grandes intelectuais norte-americanos no final do século XIX e início do século XX. Era para lá que eles se dirigiam, com o objetivo de aprofundar sua formação em pesquisa. Vários deles estudaram na Alemanha, inclusive Talcott Parsons [1902-1979], o fundador da sociologia norte-americana, que frequentou a Universidade de Heidelberg, em 1927”, prosseguiu.

Quando as universidades de pesquisa norte-americanas foram criadas, em 1870, seus fundadores se inspiraram no modelo alemão. John Hopkins, Chicago, Clark seguiram esse modelo. Após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, com a Europa devastada, os Estados Unidos tornaram-se o centro do mundo. Os fabulosos recursos econômicos proporcionados pela atividade industrial voltada para o esforço de guerra forneceram a base material para a hegemonia cultural norte-americana, que as indústrias cinematográfica e fonográfica ajudaram a disseminar. E isso repercutiu também na exportação de seu modelo de ensino superior.

“O terceiro modelo, o da França, foi replicado nos países que participaram do antigo império colonial francês. Mas não apenas neles. Foi também influente em outros lugares, inclusive no Brasil, servindo de paradigma para a criação da Universidade de São Paulo”, afirmou Moraes. Foi à França que o então governador do Estado de São Paulo, Armando de Salles Oliveira, enviou o matemático Teodoro Ramos, professor da Escola Politécnica, para contratar professores e pesquisadores das várias áreas do conhecimento com o intuito de compor o quadro docente da futura USP. O antropólogo Claude Lévi-Strauss, o historiador Fernand Braudel e o sociólogo Roger Bastide foram alguns dos que atenderam ao convite.

Do ensino profissionalizante às escolas nobres

A pesquisa conduzida por Moraes proporcionou algumas informações de certo modo surpreendentes. “Quando se considera o ‘índice de cobertura’, isto é, a porcentagem de jovens na faixa etária adequada que frequentam instituições de ensino superior e o percentual da população adulta que tem diploma de curso superior, os da Alemanha são os menores no comparativo entre os três países. E, no entanto, a Alemanha é dos três a que possui o padrão industrial mais inovador”, disse o pesquisador.

A explicação para esse aparente paradoxo está na força do ensino médio alemão. “A Alemanha deu muita importância à escola média e profissionalizante como a organização que administra a transição da juventude para a idade adulta: 70% dos jovens alemães desfrutam de algum tipo de ensino profissional. A universidade é um degrau a mais, cujo acesso é relativamente restrito. "Os americanos, ao contrário, têm um ensino médio de qualidade muito desigual. A maioria das High Schools têm baixa qualidade. Eles tentam resolver essa deficiência no nível superior por meio dos Community Colleges, que oferecem um ensino de curta duração, de dois ou três anos, e cujo nível é quase equivalente ao do ensino médio alemão”, informou Moraes.

Como se depreende, a comparação internacional é difícil, pois um mesmo termo nomeia, muitas vezes, coisas bastante diferentes. A Alemanha possui um ensino médio fortíssimo, com viés profissionalizante. E dois tipos de instituição de ensino superior: a universidade e a escola superior. O tempo médio de permanência dos alunos nessas instituições é de cinco a seis anos. Os Estados Unidos, ao contrário, têm um ensino médio fraco e procuram suprir essa deficiência estrutural com os Community Colleges. “Bombeiros, ajudantes de enfermagem, eletricistas, detetives se formam em Community Colleges”, comentou o pesquisador.

Segundo Moraes, mesmo universidades norte-americanas que estão no topo do ranking mundial possuem um ensino de graduação menos sofisticado, concentrando seu padrão de excelência nos cursos de pós-graduação.

A França possui um modelo que fica entre os dois extremos. Tem um sistema de educação superior com basicamente quatro tipos de escola. Uma delas é a universidade. Praticamente todos os estudantes que terminam o ensino médio têm o direito de entrar em alguma universidade. A despeito de seu renome internacional, a universidade francesa é pouco seletiva, a não ser em alguns cursos específicos, como o de medicina. “Em geral, ela é uma ‘escolona’ aberta e não o centro de educação da elite profissional, pública ou privada, nem o centro da pesquisa científica e tecnológica. Isso como regra geral, é claro, pois existem alguns departamentos de algumas universidades que são altamente sofisticados”, ressaltou Moraes.

“A instituição nobre para a formação dos quadros de nível superior é a chamada ‘Grande Escola’: a Escola de Minas, a Escola Politécnica, a Escola Nacional de Ciência Política etc. Estas são seletivas e altamente elitizadas. Formam a elite da elite: presidentes, ministros, diretores de grandes empresas etc. Essas escolas estão fora da estrutura das universidades. Os melhores alunos dos liceus, do ensino médio, se candidatam para elas. Mas, quando aprovados, não entram propriamente nas Grandes Escolas. Fazem o que se chama de classes preparatórias para as Grandes Escolas. São três anos cursados nos próprios liceus. Depois, completam sua formação, com mais dois anos nas Grandes Escolas. Por isso, muitos professores de ensino superior ensinam como agregados [agrégés] nas grandes escolas preparatórias”, prosseguiu.

Muitos dos professores que vieram ao Brasil dar aulas na antiga Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras da USP eram, na verdade, professores desses liceus nobres. Foi o caso, por exemplo, de Fernand Braudel (1902- 1985), um dos principais integrantes da chamada École des Annales, que renovou a historiografia francesa e internacional. Braudel foi agrégé nos liceus Pasteur, Condorcet e Henri-IV em Paris, antes de vir para o Brasil e colaborar na estruturação da Universidade de São Paulo, onde lecionou de 1935 a 1937.

“Outro diferencial é que, na França, a pesquisa científica e tecnológica não é administrada pelas universidades, mas por grandes instituições públicas, como, por exemplo, o CNRS [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique – Centro Nacional da Pesquisa Científica]. Trata-se de um grande contratador e financiador da pesquisa. Muitos cientistas fazem suas carreiras ali. O CNRS estabelece contratos com departamentos e laboratórios de universidades e cria centros de pesquisa de excelência dentro de universidades. Mas esses centros não pertencem às universidades, e, sim, ao próprio CNRS”, acrescentou o pesquisador.

As outras duas instituições de ensino superior francesas foram criadas na transição dos anos 1960 para 1970. Uma delas é o instituto universitário tecnológico (Institut Universitaire de Technologie – IUT), que é seletivo (os aspirantes devem passar por exame de seleção) e muito exigente, muito escolar em seu funcionamento, com controle de frequência, provas todos os meses etc. O padrão de ensino é elevado e o percentual de transição da escola para o emprego é altíssimo.

A outra instituição, também seletiva, mas de nível um pouco mais baixo, é a seção técnica superior (Sections de Technicien Supérieur – STS). Constitui como que um segundo andar dos liceus, para formação de profissionais de nível médio qualificados, com cursos de curta duração, de dois ou três anos. Foi criada como um meio de democratizar e disseminar o ensino.

Ensino público x ensino privado

Tanto na França como na Alemanha, o ensino privado é mínimo, em todos os níveis: elementar, médio e superior. E o ensino superior é quase que totalmente público. Até nos Estados Unidos, o ensino superior de graduação é majoritariamente público: 70% dos alunos estudam em universidades estaduais públicas (não há federais) ou em Community Colleges, que também são públicos. “Mas a educação pública superior nos Estados Unidos é paga, com anuidades e taxas. Um terço do orçamento das escolas é sustentado pelas taxas cobradas dos estudantes. O restante é basicamente dinheiro público. Inclusive grandes e renomadas escolas privadas, como Harvard e MIT, recebem enormes aportes de dinheiro público. O rendimento proveniente das aplicações dos patrimônios privados das universidades e as doações feitas por grandes magnatas cobrem uma parte mínima dos orçamentos. Essas doações servem muito mais para os herdeiros comprarem seus lugares nas escolas”, disse Moraes.

O pesquisador acrescentou que outra importante fonte de recursos para as instituições de ensino superior é a pesquisa contratada. O Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) é, basicamente, um grande provedor de pesquisa contratada. No passado, essa pesquisa foi quase que inteiramente direcionada para o setor militar. Hoje, está mais diversificada, com destaque também para a área de saúde. É claro que os estudantes se beneficiam com essas pesquisas, porque muitos deles se vinculam a laboratórios mantidos pelos contratadores. Mas os gastos com ensino têm importância menor no orçamento da instituição.

Já foi dito que o modelo brasileiro combinou as influências francesa e americana. Esta prevaleceu a partir da reforma universitária da ditadura, com a eliminação da cátedra, a departamentalização, a adoção do sistema de créditos, a chamada diversidade institucional, isto é, a coexistência de universidades e escolas isoladas. Menos conhecido é o fato de que houve também uma influência do modelo inglês no padrão de financiamento da pesquisa, com a criação de agências como a FAPESP, o Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) etc., que atuam de maneira complementar às universidades.

Modelos internacionais de educação superior: Estados Unidos, Alemanha e França
Autores: Reginaldo C. Moraes, Maitá de Paula e Silva, Luiza Carnicero de Castro
Ano: 2017
Páginas: 116
Preço: R$ 38,00

terça-feira, 22 de maio de 2018

Interprofessional Education

Results of the Implementation of Interprofessional Discipline for Health Area Courses

By Roberto Z. Esteves 

Roberto Z. Esteves, MD, PhD is Associate Professor and Medicine Course Coordinator at Universidade Estadual de Maringá and Postgraduate Professor in HPE at Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe (BRAZIL). He has colaborated in recent years with the FAIMER – Brazil Regional Institute. 


The main intention of my project was to re-orientate the formation of health professionals towards what the society needs. For that, it is fundamental to improve the interprofessionality and to strengthen what every profession can do.

It is fundamental to develop the common competences of the seven  courses together and early, to prevent a splitted view that focus on professional conflicts and not the synergies. Actually, when students are exposed to a health system and community demanding a interprofessional design, despite their different courses, they will probably develop better common and specific skills. During their graduate course and their professional life, they will recognize that every profession has its importance and interprofessional teamwork can improve the health outcomes .

There were challenges, of course. The university and faculties had misconceptions about IPE and usually only know to work in a uniprofessional model. The dean and coordinators as stakeholders were crucial to the success. Institutional support allowed the faculty development to IPE and to review the curricula.

Academia and health services have prejudices about each other, generally due to the lack of discussion. By doing workshops with  teachers and health services professionals we allowed the alignment of the objectives and created the feeling of belonging to a common project.

We can’t expect future professionals to work in interprofessional teams when they didn’t learn the interprofessional design in their education and never saw the professors and professionals working together and respecting each other.


In Interprofessional Education (IPE) two or more health professions learn about each other, improving attitudes, knowledge, skills and behaviors for collaborative practice. At the State University of Maringá (UEM), the health courses present curriculum with disciplines that are hierarchical and teacher-centered. Changes are justified in search of an integral formation. Attention in Health was introduced in the curricular matrix in a mandatory way.
Objective:  to describe the results of the creation of disciplines in primary care. In the activities, the Arch of Maguerez was used as an active methodology and an evaluation system composed of cognitive, psychomotor and affective axes, articulated, continuous and systematic. In three years of activity, the discipline involved 1450 students, 65 teachers and 26 preceptors of the primary care network, producing 125 local intervention projects. The projects were discussed and carried out jointly with the preceptors of the health network.
Conclusion: IPE can be the integration between university and health services since the training of students, integrating the team and creating a future interprofessional perspective.

Educação das profissões da saúde

PROPET-Saúde/UEM promove Oficina com Nildo Batista

domingo, 20 de maio de 2018

High-potential personality

The secrets of the ‘high-potential’ personality

Are there six traits that could really mark out your potential to achieve?
Are you curious, conscientious and competitive? Do you also have the more mysterious qualities of “high adjustment”, “ambiguity acceptance” and “risk approach”? If so, congratulations! According to new psychological research, these six traits constitute a “high potential” personality that will take you far in life.

The truth, of course, is a little more nuanced. It turns out the same traits, in excess, may also impede your performance, and the real secret to success may be to know exactly where you fall on each spectrum, and how to make the most of your strengths and account for your weaknesses. But this new approach promises to be an important step forward in our bid to understand the complex ways our personality affects our working life.

Attempts to capture our workplace personality have, after all, suffered a chequered record in the past. One of the most popular tests used today is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which sorts people according to various thinking styles, such as “introversion/extroversion” and “thinking/feeling”.

As many as nine out of 10 US companies now use Myers-Briggs to screen employees. Unfortunately, many psychologists feel that the theory behind the different categories is outdated and fails to correlate with actual measures of performance. One study suggested that the MBTI is not great at predicting managerial success. Some critics even claim that it is pseudoscience.

“As a conversation starter, it’s a good tool, but if you are using it on a large scale to predict performance or to try and find high-performing candidates, it doesn’t work,” says Ian MacRae, a psychologist and co-author of the book High Potential.

Figuring that recent advances in psychological research could do better, MacRae and Adrian Furnham of University College London have now identified six traits that are consistently linked to workplace success, which they have now combined into the High Potential Trait Inventory (HPTI).  

 Nurturing your curiosity may help you to learn more easily, increase your overall job satisfaction and protect you from burnout (Credit: Getty Images)

MacRae points out that each trait may also have drawbacks at extremes, meaning there is an optimal value of each one. He also emphasises that the relative importance of each trait will be determined by the job you are doing, so the particular thresholds would need to be adapted depending on whether you are hoping to succeed in, say, a technical position. But the version of the test that I have seen was focused on leadership roles.

With this in mind, the six traits are:


Conscientious people commit themselves to plans and make sure they carry them out to the letter. They are good at overcoming their impulses and thinking about the wisdom of their decisions for the long-term. After IQ, conscientiousness is often considered one of the best predictors of life outcomes like educational success. At work, high conscientiousness is essential for good strategic planning, but in excess it may also mean that you are too rigid and inflexible.


Everyone faces anxieties, but people with high adjustment can cope with them more easily under pressure, without allowing it to negatively influence their behaviour and decision-making. People with low scores on this scale do appear to suffer from poor performance at work, but you can mitigate those effects with the right mindset. Various studies have shown that reframing a stressful situation as a potential source of growth – rather than a threat to their wellbeing – can help people to recover from negative situations more quickly and more productively.

Ambiguity acceptance

Are you the kind of person who would prefer tasks to be well-defined and predictable? Or do you relish the unknown? People with a high tolerance for ambiguity can incorporate many more viewpoints before coming to a decision, which means they are less dogmatic and more nuanced in their opinions.

“Low ambiguity tolerance can be considered a kind of dictatorial characteristic,” MacRae says. “They’ll try to distil complicated messages into one easy selling point, and that can be a typical trait of destructive leadership.”

Crucially, someone who can accept ambiguity will find it easier to react to changes – such as an evolving economic climate or the rise of a new technology – and to cope with complex, multifaceted problems. “We’re trying to identify the ability of leaders to listen to lots of different opinions, to take complex arguments and to make sense of them in a proactive way, instead of simplifying them,” MacRae adds. “And we have found that the more senior you are in a leadership position, the more important that becomes for decision-making.”
Low ambiguity acceptance will not always be a drawback. In certain fields – such as regulation – it can be better to take a more ordered approach that irons out all the wrinkles in the process. Knowing where you stand on this spectrum may prevent you from stretching too far from your comfort zone.


Compared to our other mental traits, curiosity has been somewhat neglected by psychologists. Yet recent research shows that an inherent interest in new ideas brings many advantages to the workplace: it may mean that you are more creative and flexible in the procedures you use, help you to learn more easily, increases your overall job satisfaction and protects you from burnout.

In excess, however, curiosity can also lead you to have a “butterfly mind” – flying from project to project without seeing them through.

Risk approach (or courage)

Would you shy away from a potentially unpleasant confrontation? Or do you steam ahead in the knowledge that the short-term discomfort will resolve the situation, bringing long-term benefits? Unsurprisingly, the capacity to deal with difficult situations is critical for management positions where you need to take action for the greater good, even when you are faced with opposition.


There’s a fine line between striving for personal success and caving into unhealthy jealousy of others. At its best, competitiveness can be a powerful motivation that leads you to go the extra mile; at its worst, it can lead teams to break down.

Together, these six traits consolidate most of our understanding to date on the many different qualities that influence work performance, particularly for those setting their sights on leadership.

Equally interesting are the personality traits that MacRae and Furnham haven’t included, however. The extroversion-introversion scale, for instance, may determine how we deal with certain social situations, but it seems to make little difference in overall job performance. Agreeableness – our capacity to get along with other people – doesn’t appear to predict professional success.

To measure each trait in the HPTI, participants have to rate how strongly they agree or disagree with a series of statements, such as: “I get frustrated when I don’t know precisely what is expected of me at work” (aimed at discovering ambiguity acceptance) or “my personal targets exceed those of my organisation” (which measures conscientiousness).

MacRae has now validated HPTI in various sectors, tracking the performance of business leaders of multinational organisations over several years, for instance.

The research is still ongoing, but a paper published last year demonstrated that these traits can predict subjective and objective measures of success. In one analysis, the participants’ answers explained about 25% of the variation in income – which is a reasonably strong correlation (and comparable to the influence of intelligence, say) even if it does still leave many differences unexplained. In this study, competitiveness and ambiguity acceptance turned out to be the strongest predictors of take-home pay, while conscientiousness seemed to best predict the subjective measures of satisfaction.

The researchers have also examined the relation of these traits to IQ – another important predictor of workplace success – finding a small overlap between the two.

As part of a wider recruitment process, the HPTI could be used to screen high potential candidates, but MacRae says it can also aid personal development, so that you can identify your own strengths and weaknesses and the ways you may account for them. It could also be useful for constructing a balanced team that reflects the full spectrum of “high potential” traits, with a wealth of research showing that groups benefit from diverse thinking styles. Almost everyone will fall outside the optimum range for at least some of these traits, but this needn’t be a problem if we have colleagues who can rein us in.

But does anyone ever meet all the criteria? MacRae told me that he can think of a couple of individuals who fit the bill, including the CEO of a bank in Canada. “He was almost optimal in all of the traits,” MacRae says. “And I have to say, that was very intimidating.” Despite those feelings of awe, the benefits of this unique personality profile were apparent throughout the meeting. “Even if it can be a bit scary to work with that kind of person, you know exactly what to expect – they are someone you can trust, rely on and respect.”

David Robson is a freelance writer based in London, UK. He is d_a_robson on Twitter.
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quinta-feira, 10 de maio de 2018

Leadership in complex situations

Everyone Can be a Leader

 Everyone can be a leader. From the boardroom to the backyard, leadership is in your reach. Regardless of whether or not you have a formal leadership role, you can take action and set conditions for those around you to be successful. Here is how: 1) recognize the leadership opportunities available to you each day, 2) use your ability to influence and take action, and 3) find the tools and tips needed to lead even when the situation is complex.

Opportunities to lead are everywhere

There are myriad of leadership opportunities in everyday life. For example, taking action in your community to improve neighborhoods by picking up litter, cleaning public parks, or organizing community watch programs. You can take action by helping a stranger cross the street, leading a local bicycle awareness ride, or encouraging a friend to try something new. In each of these opportunities to lead, your actions have the potential to change, improve, or inspire others to be the change they want to see.

There are also many opportunities to lead in the workplace. For example, even without a formal leadership role you may choose to go the extra mile to keep a project on track or rally others to get their tasks done. You might start a trend of smiles in the elevator, or organize guest speakers to join your team for lunch and learn sessions. Such actions have ripple effects that you may, or may not, ever see. Whatever the focus, opportunities to lead are everywhere.

Everyone has the potential to be a leader when they use their ability to influence and take action

In general, leaders tap into their influence because they see themselves as an active agent in the situation. Being an active agent means, you read a situation, decide what is important, and you take action. By virtue of taking action, you can influence others around you to do so too.

Central to the role of any leader is “taking action.” HSD offers three simple questions to help leaders do this: 1) What?, 2) So what?, 3) Now what?. This is the Adaptive Action cycle.

“Using Adaptive Action, leaders ask three questions. “What?” helps you name patterns of interaction and decision-making that shape success. “So what?” helps you make sense of those patterns. “Now what?” helps you inform action to influence yourself and your team toward greater fit, success, and sustainability.” (Adaptive Action)

Finding the tips and tools to helps leaders lead in complex situations

When I am coaching formal or informal leaders through conflict management or change initiatives, we often talk about an important nuance to using one’s influence and taking action. That is, how to take action when the situation is volatile, uncertain, complex, and/or ambiguous (VUCA). It is in these situations where we can all get stuck, and end up missing an opportunity to lead and influence.

In these complex situations the stakes are high and there is no room for error. If there is one tip I can’t stress enough, it is to use iterative Adaptive Action cycles to select your next wise actions. VUCA situations, like driving in heavy fog, require many careful advances. Advance slowly and actively with your “What?", “So what?,” and “Now what?” questions, being sure to take an action each time (no matter how small) to keep your influence in motion. With each action you will receive feedback. Pay attention to this feedback, it is essential information. Use this feedback in your next cycle of “What?,” “So what?,” and “Now what?” questions to gain new opportunities for insight and action.

To support Adaptive Action cycles, Human Systems Dynamics provides a wide variety of models and methods to help you leverage your influence. These models and methods can be layered with your Adaptive Action cycles. Check out some of the HSD Institute’s free webinars to see the many ways this is done. In short, rather than feeling stuck, formal and informal leaders can realize opportunities and take action when they have the right tools at hand.

domingo, 6 de maio de 2018

Futuro da CT&I no Brasil

Coletiva de imprensa marca lançamento de documento da ABC aos presidenciáveis

Como faz a cada quatro anos, a Academia Brasileira de Ciências (ABC) apresenta propostas para as áreas de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (CT&I) aos candidatos à Presidência da República.

Através desta ação, a ABC busca demonstrar aos candidatos que o desenvolvimento econômico e social do Brasil só será sustentado e sustentável se incorporar, na agenda nacional, CT&I como política de Estado.

A economia brasileira precisa agregar valor à produção nacional, reverendo o processo de desindustrialização ocorrido nos últimos anos, de modo a facilitar a inserção competitiva do país no mercado global.

É urgente que os políticos brasileiros entendam a importância das pautas da ciência para o desenvolvimento do país e que a sociedade brasileira tenha também essa compreensão.

Para tanto, a ABC elaborou um documento que será entregue em mãos aos candidatos à Presidência do Brasil e, posteriormente, a deputados e senadores.

A mídia é uma das forças que pode desempenhar um papel fundamental nesse processo. Por isso, a ABC está promovendo uma coletiva de imprensa para apresentar este documento aos principais veículos de mídia do país. O presidente da ABC, Luiz Davidovich , e o vice-presidente, João Fernando Gomes de Oliveira , assim como outros cientistas de excelência, coautores do documento, apresentarão as propostas durante a Reunião Magna da ABC ( Após a apresentação, todos estarão disponíveis para entrevistas.

O documento está disponível em

Os jornalistas interessados devem enviar seus dados para até a 3ª feira, 8 de maio de 2018, às 16h.

Evento: COLETIVA DE IMPRENSA SOBRE O DOCUMENTO DA ABC AOS CANDIDATOS À PRESIDÊNCIA DO BRASIL Data e hora: 4ª feira, 9 de maio de 2018, 10 às 12h Local: Museu do Amanhã – sala Observatório do Amanhã Inscrições: e-mail para com nome, função, veículo de mídia, CPF e e-mail. Mais informações: 21 3907-8126 /