terça-feira, 22 de maio de 2018

Interprofessional Education



Results of the Implementation of Interprofessional Discipline for Health Area Courses

By Roberto Z. Esteves 

 
Roberto Z. Esteves, MD, PhD is Associate Professor and Medicine Course Coordinator at Universidade Estadual de Maringá and Postgraduate Professor in HPE at Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe (BRAZIL). He has colaborated in recent years with the FAIMER – Brazil Regional Institute. 

Interview

The main intention of my project was to re-orientate the formation of health professionals towards what the society needs. For that, it is fundamental to improve the interprofessionality and to strengthen what every profession can do.

It is fundamental to develop the common competences of the seven  courses together and early, to prevent a splitted view that focus on professional conflicts and not the synergies. Actually, when students are exposed to a health system and community demanding a interprofessional design, despite their different courses, they will probably develop better common and specific skills. During their graduate course and their professional life, they will recognize that every profession has its importance and interprofessional teamwork can improve the health outcomes .

There were challenges, of course. The university and faculties had misconceptions about IPE and usually only know to work in a uniprofessional model. The dean and coordinators as stakeholders were crucial to the success. Institutional support allowed the faculty development to IPE and to review the curricula.

Academia and health services have prejudices about each other, generally due to the lack of discussion. By doing workshops with  teachers and health services professionals we allowed the alignment of the objectives and created the feeling of belonging to a common project.

We can’t expect future professionals to work in interprofessional teams when they didn’t learn the interprofessional design in their education and never saw the professors and professionals working together and respecting each other.
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Abstract

In Interprofessional Education (IPE) two or more health professions learn about each other, improving attitudes, knowledge, skills and behaviors for collaborative practice. At the State University of Maringá (UEM), the health courses present curriculum with disciplines that are hierarchical and teacher-centered. Changes are justified in search of an integral formation. Attention in Health was introduced in the curricular matrix in a mandatory way.
Objective:  to describe the results of the creation of disciplines in primary care. In the activities, the Arch of Maguerez was used as an active methodology and an evaluation system composed of cognitive, psychomotor and affective axes, articulated, continuous and systematic. In three years of activity, the discipline involved 1450 students, 65 teachers and 26 preceptors of the primary care network, producing 125 local intervention projects. The projects were discussed and carried out jointly with the preceptors of the health network.
Conclusion: IPE can be the integration between university and health services since the training of students, integrating the team and creating a future interprofessional perspective.




Educação das profissões da saúde




PROPET-Saúde/UEM promove Oficina com Nildo Batista




domingo, 20 de maio de 2018

High-potential personality



The secrets of the ‘high-potential’ personality

Are there six traits that could really mark out your potential to achieve?
 
Are you curious, conscientious and competitive? Do you also have the more mysterious qualities of “high adjustment”, “ambiguity acceptance” and “risk approach”? If so, congratulations! According to new psychological research, these six traits constitute a “high potential” personality that will take you far in life.

The truth, of course, is a little more nuanced. It turns out the same traits, in excess, may also impede your performance, and the real secret to success may be to know exactly where you fall on each spectrum, and how to make the most of your strengths and account for your weaknesses. But this new approach promises to be an important step forward in our bid to understand the complex ways our personality affects our working life.

Attempts to capture our workplace personality have, after all, suffered a chequered record in the past. One of the most popular tests used today is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which sorts people according to various thinking styles, such as “introversion/extroversion” and “thinking/feeling”.

As many as nine out of 10 US companies now use Myers-Briggs to screen employees. Unfortunately, many psychologists feel that the theory behind the different categories is outdated and fails to correlate with actual measures of performance. One study suggested that the MBTI is not great at predicting managerial success. Some critics even claim that it is pseudoscience.

“As a conversation starter, it’s a good tool, but if you are using it on a large scale to predict performance or to try and find high-performing candidates, it doesn’t work,” says Ian MacRae, a psychologist and co-author of the book High Potential.

Figuring that recent advances in psychological research could do better, MacRae and Adrian Furnham of University College London have now identified six traits that are consistently linked to workplace success, which they have now combined into the High Potential Trait Inventory (HPTI).  


 Nurturing your curiosity may help you to learn more easily, increase your overall job satisfaction and protect you from burnout (Credit: Getty Images)

MacRae points out that each trait may also have drawbacks at extremes, meaning there is an optimal value of each one. He also emphasises that the relative importance of each trait will be determined by the job you are doing, so the particular thresholds would need to be adapted depending on whether you are hoping to succeed in, say, a technical position. But the version of the test that I have seen was focused on leadership roles.

With this in mind, the six traits are:

Conscientiousness

Conscientious people commit themselves to plans and make sure they carry them out to the letter. They are good at overcoming their impulses and thinking about the wisdom of their decisions for the long-term. After IQ, conscientiousness is often considered one of the best predictors of life outcomes like educational success. At work, high conscientiousness is essential for good strategic planning, but in excess it may also mean that you are too rigid and inflexible.

Adjustment

Everyone faces anxieties, but people with high adjustment can cope with them more easily under pressure, without allowing it to negatively influence their behaviour and decision-making. People with low scores on this scale do appear to suffer from poor performance at work, but you can mitigate those effects with the right mindset. Various studies have shown that reframing a stressful situation as a potential source of growth – rather than a threat to their wellbeing – can help people to recover from negative situations more quickly and more productively.

Ambiguity acceptance

Are you the kind of person who would prefer tasks to be well-defined and predictable? Or do you relish the unknown? People with a high tolerance for ambiguity can incorporate many more viewpoints before coming to a decision, which means they are less dogmatic and more nuanced in their opinions.

“Low ambiguity tolerance can be considered a kind of dictatorial characteristic,” MacRae says. “They’ll try to distil complicated messages into one easy selling point, and that can be a typical trait of destructive leadership.”

Crucially, someone who can accept ambiguity will find it easier to react to changes – such as an evolving economic climate or the rise of a new technology – and to cope with complex, multifaceted problems. “We’re trying to identify the ability of leaders to listen to lots of different opinions, to take complex arguments and to make sense of them in a proactive way, instead of simplifying them,” MacRae adds. “And we have found that the more senior you are in a leadership position, the more important that becomes for decision-making.”
Low ambiguity acceptance will not always be a drawback. In certain fields – such as regulation – it can be better to take a more ordered approach that irons out all the wrinkles in the process. Knowing where you stand on this spectrum may prevent you from stretching too far from your comfort zone.

Curiosity

Compared to our other mental traits, curiosity has been somewhat neglected by psychologists. Yet recent research shows that an inherent interest in new ideas brings many advantages to the workplace: it may mean that you are more creative and flexible in the procedures you use, help you to learn more easily, increases your overall job satisfaction and protects you from burnout.

In excess, however, curiosity can also lead you to have a “butterfly mind” – flying from project to project without seeing them through.

Risk approach (or courage)

Would you shy away from a potentially unpleasant confrontation? Or do you steam ahead in the knowledge that the short-term discomfort will resolve the situation, bringing long-term benefits? Unsurprisingly, the capacity to deal with difficult situations is critical for management positions where you need to take action for the greater good, even when you are faced with opposition.

Competitiveness

There’s a fine line between striving for personal success and caving into unhealthy jealousy of others. At its best, competitiveness can be a powerful motivation that leads you to go the extra mile; at its worst, it can lead teams to break down.

Together, these six traits consolidate most of our understanding to date on the many different qualities that influence work performance, particularly for those setting their sights on leadership.

Equally interesting are the personality traits that MacRae and Furnham haven’t included, however. The extroversion-introversion scale, for instance, may determine how we deal with certain social situations, but it seems to make little difference in overall job performance. Agreeableness – our capacity to get along with other people – doesn’t appear to predict professional success.

To measure each trait in the HPTI, participants have to rate how strongly they agree or disagree with a series of statements, such as: “I get frustrated when I don’t know precisely what is expected of me at work” (aimed at discovering ambiguity acceptance) or “my personal targets exceed those of my organisation” (which measures conscientiousness).

MacRae has now validated HPTI in various sectors, tracking the performance of business leaders of multinational organisations over several years, for instance.

The research is still ongoing, but a paper published last year demonstrated that these traits can predict subjective and objective measures of success. In one analysis, the participants’ answers explained about 25% of the variation in income – which is a reasonably strong correlation (and comparable to the influence of intelligence, say) even if it does still leave many differences unexplained. In this study, competitiveness and ambiguity acceptance turned out to be the strongest predictors of take-home pay, while conscientiousness seemed to best predict the subjective measures of satisfaction.

The researchers have also examined the relation of these traits to IQ – another important predictor of workplace success – finding a small overlap between the two.

As part of a wider recruitment process, the HPTI could be used to screen high potential candidates, but MacRae says it can also aid personal development, so that you can identify your own strengths and weaknesses and the ways you may account for them. It could also be useful for constructing a balanced team that reflects the full spectrum of “high potential” traits, with a wealth of research showing that groups benefit from diverse thinking styles. Almost everyone will fall outside the optimum range for at least some of these traits, but this needn’t be a problem if we have colleagues who can rein us in.

But does anyone ever meet all the criteria? MacRae told me that he can think of a couple of individuals who fit the bill, including the CEO of a bank in Canada. “He was almost optimal in all of the traits,” MacRae says. “And I have to say, that was very intimidating.” Despite those feelings of awe, the benefits of this unique personality profile were apparent throughout the meeting. “Even if it can be a bit scary to work with that kind of person, you know exactly what to expect – they are someone you can trust, rely on and respect.”



David Robson is a freelance writer based in London, UK. He is d_a_robson on Twitter.
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quinta-feira, 10 de maio de 2018

Leadership in complex situations


Everyone Can be a Leader


 Everyone can be a leader. From the boardroom to the backyard, leadership is in your reach. Regardless of whether or not you have a formal leadership role, you can take action and set conditions for those around you to be successful. Here is how: 1) recognize the leadership opportunities available to you each day, 2) use your ability to influence and take action, and 3) find the tools and tips needed to lead even when the situation is complex.

Opportunities to lead are everywhere

There are myriad of leadership opportunities in everyday life. For example, taking action in your community to improve neighborhoods by picking up litter, cleaning public parks, or organizing community watch programs. You can take action by helping a stranger cross the street, leading a local bicycle awareness ride, or encouraging a friend to try something new. In each of these opportunities to lead, your actions have the potential to change, improve, or inspire others to be the change they want to see.

There are also many opportunities to lead in the workplace. For example, even without a formal leadership role you may choose to go the extra mile to keep a project on track or rally others to get their tasks done. You might start a trend of smiles in the elevator, or organize guest speakers to join your team for lunch and learn sessions. Such actions have ripple effects that you may, or may not, ever see. Whatever the focus, opportunities to lead are everywhere.

Everyone has the potential to be a leader when they use their ability to influence and take action

In general, leaders tap into their influence because they see themselves as an active agent in the situation. Being an active agent means, you read a situation, decide what is important, and you take action. By virtue of taking action, you can influence others around you to do so too.

Central to the role of any leader is “taking action.” HSD offers three simple questions to help leaders do this: 1) What?, 2) So what?, 3) Now what?. This is the Adaptive Action cycle.

“Using Adaptive Action, leaders ask three questions. “What?” helps you name patterns of interaction and decision-making that shape success. “So what?” helps you make sense of those patterns. “Now what?” helps you inform action to influence yourself and your team toward greater fit, success, and sustainability.” (Adaptive Action)

Finding the tips and tools to helps leaders lead in complex situations

When I am coaching formal or informal leaders through conflict management or change initiatives, we often talk about an important nuance to using one’s influence and taking action. That is, how to take action when the situation is volatile, uncertain, complex, and/or ambiguous (VUCA). It is in these situations where we can all get stuck, and end up missing an opportunity to lead and influence.

In these complex situations the stakes are high and there is no room for error. If there is one tip I can’t stress enough, it is to use iterative Adaptive Action cycles to select your next wise actions. VUCA situations, like driving in heavy fog, require many careful advances. Advance slowly and actively with your “What?", “So what?,” and “Now what?” questions, being sure to take an action each time (no matter how small) to keep your influence in motion. With each action you will receive feedback. Pay attention to this feedback, it is essential information. Use this feedback in your next cycle of “What?,” “So what?,” and “Now what?” questions to gain new opportunities for insight and action.

To support Adaptive Action cycles, Human Systems Dynamics provides a wide variety of models and methods to help you leverage your influence. These models and methods can be layered with your Adaptive Action cycles. Check out some of the HSD Institute’s free webinars to see the many ways this is done. In short, rather than feeling stuck, formal and informal leaders can realize opportunities and take action when they have the right tools at hand.

domingo, 6 de maio de 2018

Futuro da CT&I no Brasil



Coletiva de imprensa marca lançamento de documento da ABC aos presidenciáveis





Como faz a cada quatro anos, a Academia Brasileira de Ciências (ABC) apresenta propostas para as áreas de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (CT&I) aos candidatos à Presidência da República.

Através desta ação, a ABC busca demonstrar aos candidatos que o desenvolvimento econômico e social do Brasil só será sustentado e sustentável se incorporar, na agenda nacional, CT&I como política de Estado.

A economia brasileira precisa agregar valor à produção nacional, reverendo o processo de desindustrialização ocorrido nos últimos anos, de modo a facilitar a inserção competitiva do país no mercado global.

É urgente que os políticos brasileiros entendam a importância das pautas da ciência para o desenvolvimento do país e que a sociedade brasileira tenha também essa compreensão.

Para tanto, a ABC elaborou um documento que será entregue em mãos aos candidatos à Presidência do Brasil e, posteriormente, a deputados e senadores.

A mídia é uma das forças que pode desempenhar um papel fundamental nesse processo. Por isso, a ABC está promovendo uma coletiva de imprensa para apresentar este documento aos principais veículos de mídia do país. O presidente da ABC, Luiz Davidovich , e o vice-presidente, João Fernando Gomes de Oliveira , assim como outros cientistas de excelência, coautores do documento, apresentarão as propostas durante a Reunião Magna da ABC (https://goo.gl/FNRFBP). Após a apresentação, todos estarão disponíveis para entrevistas.

O documento está disponível em https://goo.gl/i5WY87

Os jornalistas interessados devem enviar seus dados para ascom@abc.org.br até a 3ª feira, 8 de maio de 2018, às 16h.
Serviço

Evento: COLETIVA DE IMPRENSA SOBRE O DOCUMENTO DA ABC AOS CANDIDATOS À PRESIDÊNCIA DO BRASIL Data e hora: 4ª feira, 9 de maio de 2018, 10 às 12h Local: Museu do Amanhã – sala Observatório do Amanhã Inscrições: e-mail para ascom@abc.org.br com nome, função, veículo de mídia, CPF e e-mail. Mais informações: 21 3907-8126 / ascom@abc.org.br

sexta-feira, 4 de maio de 2018

Desenvolvimento Docente







Centro de Desenvolvimento Docente da FMRP-USP tem financiamento aprovado pelo National Board for Medical Examiners


O Centro de Desenvolvimento Docente para o Ensino (CDDE) da FMRP é um órgão criado recentemente na unidade para desenvolver atividades educacionais que visam aperfeiçoar os trabalhos dos professores no ensino e na avaliação dos estudantes, bem como na organização e na gestão dos currículos.

No final de 2017, o CDDE tomou conhecimento que o National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME), que é um organismo responsável por fazer exames dos médicos que pretendem obter treinamento profissional ou trabalhar nos EUA, estava financiando atividades de capacitação de professores da área da saúde na América Latina, para aperfeiçoamento da avaliação dos estudantes. Isso vem sendo feito por meio de um programa permanente denominado Latin American Grants (LAG). O CDDE da FMRP elaborou um projeto, em consórcio com seis outras instituições, que veio a ser um dos três aprovados nesse ano, dentre as 15 propostas apresentadas por universidades de cinco países da América Latina. O projeto da FMRP tem como objetivo principal a elaboração pelas instituições participantes de programas bem definidos de avaliação dos estudantes dos diversos cursos, que contenham aperfeiçoamentos claros, em relação à situação atual. Estes programas devem prever o emprego de métodos mais efetivos de avaliação de conhecimentos e de habilidades clínicas e maior ênfase na avaliação formativa (feedback aos estudantes). 




RESPOSTAS ÀS QUESTÕES

1- Como serão investidos os recursos obtidos no projeto?
Os recursos obtidos (cinquenta mil dólares americanos) serão investidos predominantemente na organização e ministração de cursos e oficinas de capacitação de professores para aperfeiçoar a avaliação dos estudantes. Será feito inicialmente um curso mais prolongado na FMRP (segundo semestre de 2018), que contará com professores estrangeiros convidados. Em seguida, serão feitos, ao longo de 2019, cursos e oficinas mais curtos em cada uma das instituições parceiras. Na fase final do projeto, serão realizadas reuniões e visitas a cada instituição, visando acompanhar e auxiliar na elaboração dos programas de aperfeiçoamento da avaliação dos estudantes de cada curso e de introdução de novos métodos de avaliação de conhecimentos e de habilidades clínicas.

2 - Quais serão as instituições parceiras?
A instituição líder é do projeto é a FMRP, com os seus cursos de Medicina, Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional. Na USP, entra também a FMUSP com o seu curso de Medicina.
Outras instituições e cursos são: UFSCAR (cursos de Medicina, Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional), UNICAMP (curso de Medicina), PUC-SP (cursos de Medicina e Enfermagem), UFMG (cursos de Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional), Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (cursos de Medicina, Farmácia e Medicina Veterinária) e Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, BA (curso de Medicina).

3-Quais cursos da FMRP serão beneficiados?
Como mencionado acima, estão incluídos formalmente no projeto os cursos de Medicina, Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional da FMRP. No entanto, pela própria natureza da missão e das atividades do CDDE, pretende-se estender naturalmente as ações de aperfeiçoamento da avaliação do estudante a todos os seus demais cursos (Ciências Biomédicas, Fonoaudiologia, Nutrição e Metabolismo e Informática Biomédica).

4- Como a NBME observará o progresso do projeto?
O NBME tem expertise comprovada em mais de 100 anos de atuação nos EUA na avaliação de estudantes e na elaboração de exames e deve colaborar nas cursos e oficinas a serem realizadas no âmbito do projeto. Além disso, deve ter ações de acompanhamento e, ao final, avaliar se os objetivos estabelecidos no projeto da FMRP, junto com as instituições parceiras, foram atingidos.

Referência: Prof. Dr. Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon Prof. Dr. Valdes Roberto Bollela - Coordenadores do Projeto CDDE-FMRP




segunda-feira, 30 de abril de 2018

Alma-Ata Revisited


Rural WONCA Delhi Declaration


Delegates at the recent 15th Wonca World Rural Health Conference called on the international community to reaffirm the principles of the Declaration of Alma-Ata. They called on the United Nations, its specialized agencies and national governments to continue to strive to achieve the goals set 40 years ago.







Better distribution of medical workforce



EMCM/UFRN relata a sua experiência de implantação do Curso de Medicina de Caicó

 

A implantação de um curso de medicina situado na cidade de Caicó (RN), no semiárido nordestino - a 280 quilômetros da capital do estado - e seus tensionamentos nos sistemas de saúdes locais. É esse o tema do relato feito por Lucas Pereira de Melo e outros sete autores, publicado em setembro de 2017 na Revista Interface.
 
A experiência institucional e curricular do curso de Medicina na da escola Multicampi de Ciências Médicas do Rio Grande do Norte (EMCM), da UFRN, que teve início de sua implantação em 2012. Partindo da missão constitucional do SUS de ordenar a formação de recursos humanos na área da saúde, a inadequação da formação médica às necessidades do SUS e da população e o lançamento do Programa Mais Médicos em 2013, o artigo descreve o processo de construção do projeto pedagógico do curso. A partir de uma série de reuniões e audiências públicas nos municípios da região de inserção da EMCM, havia o objetivo inicial de produzir um currículo “mais sensível às realidades locais e às necessidades de saúde da população”, com módulos, por exemplo, vinculados à Saúde Ambiental e a inserção dos graduandos nas comunidades da área.
 
Destaca também a iniciativa política da UFRN de garantir o acesso de estudantes da própria região do entorno da faculdade ao curso. A partir de um instrumento denominado Argumento de Inclusão Regional, os estudantes que terminaram ensino médio em localidades vizinhas ao campus ganhavam um bônus de 20% na nota do Sistema de Seleção Unificada (SISU). Com essa política, os pesquisadores afirmam que atualmente 67,5% dos alunos do curso são oriundos de munícipios do sertão potiguar e paraibano.
 
Destacam também a prioridade que a formação e o desenvolvimento docente tiveram nesse processo. Foram realizados uma série de cursos e oficinas sobre metodologias de ensino e disponibilizadas vagas do Mestrado Profissional para a titulação de todos os docentes do campus.
 
O projeto curricular do curso foi dividido em eixos pedagógicos estruturantes: o Ensino Tutorial, as Habilidades Clínicas, Morfofuncionais e de Comunicação e a Integração Ensino-Serviço-Comunidade. Em consonância com as Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais, o curso tem a primeira fase de Fundamentos da Prática Clínica, com 31 módulos interdisciplinares nos quatro primeiro anos da graduação, a partir dos eixos de ensino tutorial, de habilidades e na comunidade.  E, posteriormente, a segunda fase, com os dois anos finais de Internato Médico.
 
Os três eixos englobam sessões tutoriais, conferências semanais e oficinas práticas de habilidades e atividades inseridas diretamente em serviços do SUS. Diferentes formas de avaliação são descritas para cada um dos eixos foi desenvolvida, mediante as características do processo formativo das modalidades de ensino.
 
Os autores apontam obstáculos a implementação do projeto como a resistência ao modelo pedagógico baseado em metodologias ativas de aprendizagem, o comprometimento insuficiente de docentes com o curso e a sobrecarga dos estudantes e do trabalho docente.
 
Destacam também, além da graduação, a constituição de programas de Pós-Graduação, com funcionamento de dois cursos de Residência Médica (Cirurgia e Medicina de Família e Comunidade) e dois de Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde (Atenção Básica e Saúde Materno-Infantil), totalizando 71 vagas anuais.
 
Além disso, trazem à tona a prioridade na construção da Extensão Universitária no processo, com um total de 24 projetos, 5 cursos e 2 Programas de Extensão entre 2014 e 2016. Aponta-se aqui estas iniciativas como o elo entre a universidade e a comunidade, com suas complexas necessidades de saúde. Temas como a pesquisa, a titulação do corpo docente e a estrutura do campus também são abordados no relato.
 
Em suma, o artigo relaciona a implantação de um curso de Medicina inserida na luta em defesa dos princípios do SUS. Segundo os autores, “apesar de todas as potencialidades e conquistas, ainda são grandes os obstáculos e desafios a serem vencidos para que a EMCM-UFRN funcione em toda a sua capacidade e plenitude”.