- Difficulty in assessing engagement or participation by observation alone;
- Attendance issues, particularly in large classes;
- Varied emphasis on participation from course to course;
- Varied types of participation;
- Difficulty of documenting student participation in a reliable way;
- Concern about biases; and
- Concern about unfair penalization of shy or introverted students.
- They encourage attendance;
- They allow even very shy students to earn participation grades;
- If I design the formative assessment to scaffold into summative evaluation, students see the value of it and are likely to participate in a meaningful way;
- Because most of the formative assessment activities are worth points, students are more likely to take the activities seriously and put forth the effort;
- They allow learners to demonstrate knowledge in multiple ways;
- They provide tangible evidence of student engagement (or not) and learning (or not);
- They encourage students to reflect on their own learning, especially if the formative assessment techniques require any self-evaluation;
- They tell me about how well my students are learning the material, and provide me with feedback about how my course is progressing.
Rogers, Susan L. (2013). Calling the question: Do college instructors actually grade participation? College Teaching, 61, 11-22. Retrieved 7 July 2013 from ERIC database.
Weimer, M. and Walvoord, B. (2013). Grading Strategies for the College Classroom. Madison, WI: Magna Publications.